Higher education is also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. It represents levels 6, 7 and 8 of the 2011 version of the International Standard Classification of Education structure. Tertiary education at a non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education.
Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who mostly studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 percent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 percent. In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow later called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College-educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less likely to become unemployed than less-educated workers.
History of Education:
The oldest institutions of higher education established between the 5th and the 2nd centuries B.C. in several major cultural areas of Eurasia. later the great Buddhist monastery of Nālandā attracted students and professors even from distant regions. All these higher-learning institutions became models for other schools within their sphere of cultural influence.
When employers in any profession consider hiring a college graduate, they are looking for evidence of critical thinking, analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, communication skills (using both text and speech), problem-solving skills, and a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. However, most employers consider the average graduate to be more or less deficient in all of these areas.
Academic areas that are included within the liberal arts include great books, history, languages including English, linguistics, literature, mathematics, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, religious studies, science, environmental science, sociology, and theater.
Teaching engineering is teaching the application of scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to design, build, maintain, and improve structures, machines, devices, systems, materials, and processes. It may encompass using insights to conceive, model and scale an appropriate solution to a problem or objective. The discipline of engineering is extremely broad and encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of technology and types of application. Engineering disciplines include aerospace, biological, civil, chemical, computer, electrical, industrial, and mechanical.
The performing arts differ from the plastic arts or visual arts, insofar as the former uses the artist’s own body, face, and presence as a medium; the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint, which can be molded or transformed to create a work of art. Performing arts institutions include circus schools, dance schools, drama schools, and music schools.
Plastic or visual arts
The plastic arts or visual arts are a class of art forms, that involve the use of materials, that can be molded or modulated in some way, often in three dimensions. Examples are painting, sculpture, and drawing.
Higher vocational education and training takes place at the non-university tertiary level. Such education combines teaching of both practical skills and theoretical expertise. Higher education differs from other forms of post-secondary education such as those offered by institutions of vocational education, which are more colloquially known as trade schools. Higher vocational education might be contrasted with education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge.
Professional higher education Arts:
This describes a distinct form of higher education that offers a particularly intense integration with the world of work in all its aspects (including teaching, learning, research, and governance) and at all levels of the overarching Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education Area. Its function is to diversify learning opportunities, enhance employability, offer qualifications and stimulate innovation, for the benefit of learners and society.
Examples of providers of professional higher education may include graduate colleges of architecture, business, journalism, law, library science, optometry, pharmacy, public policy, human medicine, professional engineering, podiatric medicine, scientific dentistry, K-12 education, and veterinary medicine.